One may wonder why this Thread is not included within the existing 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck Thread. Well the answer is rather simple. Based on matters such as the change of name and changes to the actual die, the downgrading to just a plain Dinky Toys, the different cast of characters, the United States Justice Department, a little fellow called White and a Caterpillar, the 965 Terex Rear Dump Truck deserves its own Thread.
The following has been included in the 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck Thread, but it is briefly mentioned here again to give perspective to the story of the Dinky Toys 965 Terex Rear Dump Truck. The expanded version can be read in the 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck thread.
The company that became Euclid was founded in 1907 in Wickliffe, Ohio, by George A. Armington as Armington Electric Hoist. It was renamed Euclid Crane & Hoist when the plant was relocated to Euclid, Ohio. Euclid built experimental tractors, one crawler and several wheeled, in the 1920s, and entered the construction equipment industry in 1924 resulting in the establishment of the Road Machinery Division in 1926, and incorporated as Euclid Road Machinery, a subsidiary of the Euclid Armington Corp., on July 11, 1931. Euclid Road Machinery became independent of Euclid Armington on January 1, 1933.
Euclid Road Machinery introduced a variety of allied equipment for crawler tractors, but its biggest breakthrough came with development of the first true off-highway end dump and bottom dump trucks in the mid 1930s. Euclid came to dominate the market with these vehicles to the point that â€œEucâ€ came to be used generically for them. Euclid expanded with overseas branches and began production of trucks and scrapers in Motherwell, outside Glasgow, Scotland in 1950 and in 1951 appointed Blackwood Hodge in Northampton in Northamptonshire a previous importer of agricultural and mining machinery as their sales agent and distributor.
General Motors, which had been exploring entry into the heavy construction equipment market, acquired Euclid Road Machinery on September 30, 1953, and made it a division of GM on January 1, 1954, which included the Euclid production facility in Scotland.
Meanwhile, the design of the â€œDinky Toys 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truckâ€ proceeded accordingly at Meccano following a visit to Blackwood Hodge. The initial drawing was completed on 12 October 1953 and during 1954 at least three changes to the design was made with more changes to the design during 1955.
When it came to deciding on the colour of the model, and although Euclid painted their vehicles in a dark shade of green that later became known within the industry in the UK as â€œParkinson Greenâ€ which was also the corporate colours for Sir Lindsay Parkinson & Company Ltd that utilised Euclid machinery extensively, Meccano selected pale yellow as used by a competitor to Parkinson, Laing Constructions.
Then came the anticipated launch of this fine model, with the announcement in the October 1955 issue of The Meccano Magazine.
Over the years a number of changes were made to the model while it was in production, as well as changes to the modelâ€™s packaging. This was followed by the dropping of the trade mark Supertoys on the end-flap box style, having a full picture on two sides with the title â€œDinky Toysâ€ although no changes were made to the casting on the chassis to show the model was now just a Dinky Toys. Finally, on 3 January 1969, the drawing plans were amended when the name of the model was changed to Terex. Thus the 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck ceased to exist but was re-invented under a new name.
THE CREATION OF TEREX
On October 15, 1959, the U.S. Department of Justice filed an anti-trust action against General Motors brought about by several well- known earth-moving companies, alleging that GM threatened to control the off-road hauler market. For almost eight years, GM fought the action, and in the end to settle, GM negotiated with White Motor Corporation during 1967 for the sale of certain parts of its Euclid Division, and on February 15, 1968, White purchased the American operations for the Division and the Euclid name.
Under the sale agreement, GM was not allowed to produce trucks in competition with White for 4 years â€“ from July 1, 1968 to July 1, 1972. GM could produce off- road haul trucks in this period, but could not sell them in the US. GM equipment dealers in the US were offered a franchise deal from White to sell the White/Euclid line of trucks for a period of 4 years. The international Euclid dealerships were still owned by GM, thus forcing White to form all-new international dealerships. GM produced haul trucks in the 1968-1972 period that it had developed during its ownership of Euclid from plants in Canada and Scotland, that it had been allowed to keep. GM also retained the former Euclid lines of crawler tractors, motor scrapers and wheel loaders, which it marketed under the Earthmoving Equipment Division name.
GM adopted Terex as the brand name for the Earthmoving Equipment Division in October, 1968 having coined the name "Terex" from the Latin words "terra" (earth) and "rex" (king) â€œEarth Kingâ€, (hence its symbol being a stylised crown), for its construction equipment products and trucks not covered by the ruling. The British operation retained the Euclid (Great Britain), Ltd. name until December 1968, when it was renamed General Motors Scotland, Ltd. The Earthmoving Equipment Division was officially renamed the Terex Division on 1 July, 1970. The antitrust case did not affect either the Motherwell plant in Scotland or truck sales outside the U.S., and GM continued producing end dumps similar to the Euclid designs at Motherwell such as the R17.
When the antitrust restrictions expired in 1972, GM re-entered the American market with its 33 series end dumps and 34 series coal hauler. Although the following advertisement referred to GM and its emergence from bankruptcy in 2009, the same could have been used for Terex in 1972.
While all this was going on, Meccano had been busy producing its extremely popular Dinky Supertoys Euclid Rear Dump Truck based on the Euclid Model R15. With legal wrangling underway with Euclid/General Motors/White during 1968, at some point Meccano was made aware of the proceedings associated with their highly successful hauler. It then decided to amend their 965 Euclid to reflect the new name of the company/division that it represented. Whether this was at the urging of GM/Terex or White Motor Corporation or not is unknown. It does seem highly unlikely that the request came from WMC as that company was still manufacturing Euclid models admittedly for the US market, but Dinky was also selling its highly successful model/toy Euclid R15 there as well. Perhaps it might have been a convenient business arrangement in that GM/Terex may have funded the changes to the drawings and mould for the model as a means of promoting the new brand name. In reality, it is more than likely that Meccano simply decided to change the modelâ€™s designation to reflect the new name of the company with which it had a close association in the past.
In the Drawing Office at Meccano, the original drawings for the Euclid were amended to read â€œTerexâ€ with the change being dated 3 January 1969, three months after GM had adopted the Terex name and a full eighteen months before GM officially renamed their Earthmoving Equipment Division! So Meccano was right up there at the front of things so to speak! The only problem was that GM never produced the Euclid R15 that Meccano had modelled as a Terex. That apparently did not worry those at Meccano!! But as later events proved, GM was worried.
Unlike its predecessor, the 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck, the 965 Terex Rear Dump Truck arrived on the scene with virtually no fanfare. The first notification of this â€œnewâ€ 965 model came with the 1969 catalogue that was issued in May for the United Kingdom. Australia however, for its 1969 catalogue published at the same time as the UK catalogue, the 965 was still a Euclid.
As mentioned at the start of this Thread, why is the 965 Terex Rear Dump Truck being treated as another model with its own Thread? Hopefully the following may help answer that question. With the 965 casting, externally, the change of name to Terex with the modelâ€™s radiator and base plate are the obvious changes. But what is immediately unseen is the absence of cross-hatching to the ceiling of the cab. By 1957, Meccano had amended the die for the cab by incorporating cross-hatching to alleviate an ejection problem. All Dinky Euclid Rear Dump Trucks from then on incorporated cross-hatching with the cab. In view of cross-hatching not appearing in any Terex model, this leads one to suspect that a new mould was created based exactly on the old Euclid mould, utilising many components from the original die. This is further confirmed when comparing most of the Euclidâ€™s produced over the years with the Terex. Some of the differences are shown below.
One major difference with the Terex is the absence of a tight fitting of the cab/engine compartment to the chassis as compared with the Euclid especially in the area of the fuel tank behind the cab. Whether this was caused by some other part within the cab area is unknown, but all the Terex models I have owned have this same ill-fitting cab to chassis.
One final difference is the shape of the back of the headlights as can be seen with these two photographs.
Then closer examination reveals other differences. One is the decrease in the size of the support surround to the exhaust stack, and the second is the alteration to the radiator above the grille and below the vehicleâ€™s name, as the Euclid has a raised line which is absent with the Terex.
Initially, early production runs for the new TEREX utilised the base for the Euclid, as no doubt a small quantity were left over from the last production run of the Euclid and rather than returning these to the furnace, and until the amended die had been prepared, changing EUCLID to TEREX, these Euclid base plates were pressed into service for the TEREX. This version of the TEREX is not very common, and is valued as such.
So, by May 1969, production was well underway with this â€œnewâ€ model, although it did take some time before the stock of â€œEuclidâ€ pictorial end-flap boxes had been exhausted,
and finally a new end-flap picture box with a drawing of the model on a white background became available in limited quantities clearly showing that this was a Terex Rear Dump Truck.
As with the last issues of the Dinky Supertoys 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck, the 965 Terex also were given an inner packing piece to provide limited protection to the model inside its end-flap box. Here is an example of the packing piece that sat inside the tipping tray:
One of the strange things that arose while the Terex model was in production is the notation on the last end-flap box: COLOUR OF MODEL MAY DIFFER FROM ILLUSTRATION. The colour of the Terex always remained a sort of yellow. I state â€œsort ofâ€ as under certain lighting conditions, the model has a touch of green. Certainly the yellow colour differs from the first issue of the Euclid.
I wonder if at some stage, Meccano had entertained an idea of changing the colour to represent Terex equipment which was called â€œHi-Liteâ€ green. The picture below is the colour in question on a Euclid R-15.
The Terex like the Euclid version, also received red hubs.
However, by late 1969, the exact date being unknown at present, production ceased rather abruptly which seems to be an extra-ordinary short period of time when Meccano was well-known for keeping its models under production for a number of years to recoup the pre-production costs even to the extent of keeping models long after their use-by date simply by changing the colour scheme. So why was the Terex production treated differently with it ceasing so quickly? According to information from some former employees of Blackwood Hodge, Meccano apparently thought the name change was part of the Euclid re-organisation, however this was not the case. It was an extremely bitter and acrimonious period, with General Motors Scotland Ltd (Terex) through its agent Blackwood Hodge even going to the extent of grinding off the Euclid name from trucks operating in the UK that were under a lease arrangement. A road leading to the Blackwood Hodge offices in Northampton was even changed from Euclid Way to Hunsbury Hill Avenue. Meccano in its enthusiasm, having â€œjumped the gunâ€ became embroiled and there was even talk of legal action, in particular with the Dinky model being based on a R15, a type that in real life was never a Terex, and more so with Terex itself having more modern-looking trucks, so Meccano simply ceased production before the end of 1969, less than a year of 965 Dinky Toys Terex Rear Dump Truck sales. Although the model appeared for the last time in the April 1970 Meccano Agentâ€™s Order Form at a retail price of 15/11, the 965 for some strange reason was not included in the May 1970 UK catalogue. For those living in Australia, to complicate matters further, their 1970 catalogue with an unknown printing date, included the Terex with a retail price of AU$2.50. But by then, production had long since ceased.
And finally, one of the first issues of the 965 Euclid Rear Dump Truck and next to it, one of the last issues of the 965 Terex Rear Dump Truck, that was added to the collection in June 1970.
And here is my last 965 acquisition, a Terex with one production line error â€“ the rear wheels have the rounded side out, when they should be the same as the front wheels. Probably â€œsomeoneâ€ was chatting to a colleague and momentarily lost concentration â€“ or it was almost knock-off time!
Terex went on to produce many fine haul truck, scrapers and bulldozers. On 21 June 1970, while living in Port Moresby, I photographed a Terex 82-40 Bulldozer working on a new access road leading to the future American Embassy staff compound. Meanwhile back in the UK, Meccano was winding up its stock of 956 Terex Rear Dump Trucks.
The same view, enlarged to show that it is a Terex Bulldozer, that had been sold and serviced by Blackwood Hodge.
I end this treatise with a photograph of a group of proud Terex employees providing the symbol of their company and two images of the Terex Titan, the truck that was the worldâ€™s largest in carrying capacity for 25 years between 1973 and 1998, although in size, the Titan still remains the worldâ€™s largest. It is now preserved in Sparwood, British Columbia, minus its engines. The tyres are filled with concrete as the Chamber of Commerce grew tired of continually pumping air into them.
To put the Titan in perspective, the truck could carry the load equivalent of 23 Euclid R-15 Rear Dump Trucks!
Note the person standing inside the second rear wheel! now this was some truck!!